Services for Nose
People who have allergies can live healthy and active lives.
What is an Allergy?
An allergy is the body's immune system response to specific elements in the environment. Children with allergies react to certain substances in their everyday environment, which usually don't cause reactions in other children.
IF BOTH PARENTS HAVE ALLERGIES, THEIR (BIOLOGICAL) CHILD HAS A 75 PERCENT CHANCE OF HAVING ALLERGIES. IF ONE PARENT IS ALLERGIC, OR IF RELATIVES ON ONE SIDE OF THE FAMILY HAVE ALLERGIES, THEN THE CHILD HAS ABOUT A 50 PERCENT CHANCE OF DEVELOPING ALLERGIES.
Allergies are incredibly common. Allergies are of many types: If your allergies bother you only at certain times of year, like in the spring when the trees begin to bloom, you have "hay fever," or seasonal nasal allergies. If your allergies seem to be with you all year long, you have perennial nasal allergies.
You can also have food and drug allergies, latex allergies, insect allergies, skin allergies and eye allergies.
Causes of Nasal AllergyAn allergy is a sensitivity to a substance called an allergen. Nasal allergies are most commonly caused by one or more of four kinds of allergens: pollen, house-dust mites, mold, and animals. Because pollen is a problem only during certain times of the year, it usually causes seasonal nasal allergies. House-dust mites, mold, and animals may be around all year long, and so usually cause perennial nasal allergies. Other substances, called irritants, can bother the nose and make allergy symptoms worse.
PollenIt's the wind-blown pollen that causes nasal allergies. The amount of pollen in the air varies from season to season.
House-Dust MitesHouse-dust mites are tiny bugs too small to see. They can live in mattresses, blankets, stuffed toys, and carpets. The droppings of these mites are a common indoor cause of nasal allergies.
MoldMold loves dark, damp areas. It tends to grow in bathrooms, basements, refrigerators, and in the soil of houseplants. Their spores can cause a nasal allergic reaction as well as polyps.
AnimalsPets such as cats, dogs, birds, horses, and rabbits are common causes of nasal allergies.
Irritants Make Allergies WorseAlthough irritants don't cause nasal allergies, they can bother the nose and make allergy symptoms worse. Cigarette smoke, perfume, aerosol sprays, smoke from wood stoves or fireplaces, car exhaust, and strong odors are examples of irritants.
What is allergy testing?If you have a stuffy nose, trouble breathing (especially in the summer), or hives after eating certain foods, you may have an allergy. Allergy tests can help you and your doctor find out if these problems are caused by an allergy and which things you are allergic to. That way you can stay away from the things that trigger your allergic reaction.
What kinds of allergy tests are available?There are several types of specific allergy tests. There are skin and blood tests for allergies.
Immediate-type hypersensitivity (IgE) skin tests are typically used to test for airborne allergens, foods, insect stings, and penicillin. Immediate-type hypersensitivity also can be evaluated through serum IgE antibody testing called radioallergosorbent testing (RAST).
Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin tests (patch-type skin tests) are commonly used in patients with suspected contact dermatitis. Some common allergens for patch testing are rubber, medications, fragrances, vehicles or preservatives, hair dyes, metals, and resins.
About 15 minutes after the application of to skin, the test site is examined for a wheal and flare reaction. A positive skin test reaction (typically, a wheal 3 mm greater in diameter than the negative control reaction, accompanied by surrounding erythema) reflects the presence of mast cellbound IgE specific to the tested allergen.
Skin tests are used most of the time. There are three main kinds of skin tests. The first kind is called a "scratch" or a "prick" test. Positive-control skin tests (histamine) and negative-control skin tests (diluent) are essential for correct interpretation of skin test reactions. A tiny drop of testing allergen fluid is placed on your skin. Then, the skin is pricked through the drop. After 15 minutes, the test site is checked for redness and swelling. There's a "prick" sensation when the testing is applied, but it doesn't hurt a lot. Usually, about 240 prick tests are needed for a full exam.
Intra-dermal Tests: In the second kind of skin test, the testing fluid is injected into your skin (like a shot). This test is used to check for allergy to medicines (most often penicillin) and bee-sting allergy.
The third kind of skin test is called a patch test. A small patch of material soaked in testing fluid is taped on your skin. After 2 or 3 days, your doctor will take off the patch and look for redness and swelling in your skin. Patch tests are used to evaluate rashes caused by allergy to things that might rub against your skin.
Some commonly used medicines, like pain killers and antihistamines, can interfere with skin tests. If you take these medicines, you have to stop taking them for at least 4 days before skin tests can be done.
Allergy tests can help you find out what you are allergic to. Once you know what you are allergic to, you can try to stay away from it.
Having established a correct allergy diagnosis, the physician is better equipped to select appropriate therapeutic interventions for that patient, such as allergen avoidance, medications, and, sometimes, immunotherapy. For example, a patient with a specific pollen allergy may be instructed to increase medication use during the pollen season. Patients with an animal allergy may be instructed to use allergy or asthma medication before exposure. After specific testing, avoidance measures can be targeted to allergens to which the patient is known to be allergic.
Is allergy testing accurate?The sensitivity and specificity of percutaneous testing were 94 and 80 percent for upper respiratory symptoms, respectively; 84 and 87 percent for lower respiratory symptoms; A negative result for percutaneous testing indicated that a true allergy was unlikely.
The performance of percutaneous tests in the diagnosis of food allergy: The sensitivity of percutaneous tests was 90 percent, with specificity 65 percent, depending on the food extract used for testing. Negative reactions to suggested food allergens on percutaneous tests make a diagnosis of true food allergy unlikely in most cases
Assays for Specific IgE AntibodiesIn general, RAST and other laboratory methods for IgE testing are highly specific but somewhat less sensitive than percutaneous tests. Results of laboratory testing for food-specific IgE are generally poor, even less helpful than those for percutaneous skin testing.
RAST or other laboratory testing is typically considered when skin testing is inconvenient or difficult to perform. Most primary care physicians do not have immediate access to a clinical skin testing laboratory, so RAST may be easier to obtain. Some patients cannot undergo skin testing because of skin disease that would obscure wheal and flare results (e.g., extensive atopic dermatitis) or because they cannot stop taking medications that suppress the skin test response. In cases of life-threatening allergy (e.g., anaphylaxis), laboratory testing is sometimes used as a proxy result, keeping in mind its limited sensitivity.
Asthma:Allergic asthma often shares the same allergic triggers as allergic rhinitis. It is important to consider allergy and asthma as the manifestations of a hypersensitive "UNITED AIRWAYS."
The second National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) guideline on allergic rhinitis & asthma management recommends that all allergic rhinitis & asthma patients who require daily or weekly therapy be evaluated for allergens as possible contributing factors.10 They also note that, in selected patients with asthma at any level of severity, specific allergy testing may be indicated as a basis for allergen avoidance or immunotherapy.
Part of this material is derived from: Copyright © 2002 by the American Academy of Family Physicians. Permission is granted to print and photocopy this material for educational uses.
Treatment:Initial Management of these patients is MEDICAL, & may include use of antihistamines, decongestants, or intranasal steroids. This is a reasonable and effective approach in many patients.
Allergen immunotherapy may be especially beneficial when avoidance and medications no longer control the patient's symptoms.
In patients with significantly discomforting or disabling symptoms that are NOT CONTROLLED with standard measures, surgery may also rarely be prescribed as an option.
Where nasal obstruction is a predominant symptom, surgery remains the method of choice for airway correction.
Surgery may involve any or all of the following:
SeptoplastyReduction of the turbinate size to reduce the sensitivity.
Ablation of the vidian nerve (the nerve responsible for a hyper-reactive nose)
Re-establishment of blocked pathways for the sinuses to aerate (allow sufficient oxygen to enter).
ImmunotherapyAllergen immunotherapy is a useful option in refractory cases of allergic rhinitis not amenable to the usual control measures. Specific allergy testing can identify patients likely to benefit from immunotherapy and provide guidance about which allergens to include in the therapy regimen. Allergen immunotherapy may be especially beneficial when avoidance and medications no longer control the patient's symptoms.
74 % of patients required less than 3 periodic topical and systemic steroid courses per year over a 3 year period.
PollenPollen is in the air whenever trees, grasses, or weeds are blooming, so it's hard to avoid. But there are some things you can do to limit your exposure to pollen: After spending time outdoors, change your clothes, and wash your hair before bed. Stay indoors on windy days.
MoldIf you're allergic to mold, pay special attention to areas where water tends to collect. Here are some tips for avoiding mold: Clean the bathroom shower or tub regularly with bleach, and check the shower curtain for mold growth.
Get leaky faucets or leaks in the roof fixed right away.
While bathing or showering, leave a window open or run a fan so moisture can escape.
If your house is damp, use a dehumidifier.
House-Dust MitesHouse-dust mites are almost impossible to get rid of. But you can keep them under control. Try some of these tips: Enclose your mattress, box spring, and pillows in allergy-proof casings.
Wash sheets, blankets, and mattress pads every 1 to 2 weeks in hot water Wash bedding in hot water (at least 130°F) to kill house-dust mites. Warm or cold water won't kill them.
Remove stuffed animals and things that collect dust, such as wall hangings, knickknacks, and books-especially in the bedroom.
Have as little carpeting as possible.
Each week, have your home dusted with a damp cloth and vacuumed.
If someone else can't dust and vacuum for you, take your medication before doing these tasks. Wearing a filter mask may help.
AnimalsThe dander, saliva, and urine of animals are all allergens. Cats produce more of these allergens than most other pets. Animal fur may also contain dust, mold, and pollen. The best way to avoid animal allergens is not to have a pet. If you already have a pet and can't bear to part with it, try to reduce your exposure as much as possible.
Use shades or vertical blinds instead of horizontal blinds, which collect dust. Replace drapes with curtains that can be washed regularly.
Enclose mattresses, box springs, and pillows in allergy-proof casings. Use washable blankets and quilts. Avoid feather pillows, down comforters, and wool blankets.
EXPOSE BEDDING TO SUNLIGHT!Install a fan to keep the bathroom well ventilated.
Don't let wet clothing sit and grow mold. And don't hang clothes outside to dry where they can collect airborne pollen. Dry clothing immediately in a clothes dryer that's vented to the outside.
Check stored food for spoilage and mold growth. Clean up spills right away.
Avoid dust-catching clutter. Have enclosed places to keep books, toys, and clothes. Keep closet doors closed.
Use washable throw rugs wherever possible, or have bare floors.
Put filters over forced-air heating vents. Change the filters regularly.
Keep your car clean. Vacuum the seats and carpets regularly. If you have air conditioning, use it instead of opening the windows.
Keep rain gutters clean. Remove leaves and debris that can grow mold.
Seal all the spaces between your cupboards and beds and the wall.
Do not use carpets.
Look for fungus on the walls and have the walls painted regularly.